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NB. This page is about central heating systems. If you have electric heating with night storage radiators, we recommend you look at the CSE advice page here.
Space heating accounts for 2/3 of our home energy use. If you want to reduce your energy use this is an area you can't ignore. You can save energy with your heating system by
There are often great savings to be made by adjusting your heating controls. If you already have at least a timer, thermostat and radiator valves, then you can start saving immediately.
Where to put things
As a minimum you should have
All homes now being built also have at least two zones, each with a separate timer and wall thermostat. For example you could have the bedrooms in a separate zone which is heated at different times.
You should have thermostatic radiator valves (TRVs) on all radiators except by the thermostat. If there is a TRV there as well, set it to max, otherwise the thermostat may never get warm enough to turn the boiler off.
Also, some boilers need at least one radiator without a TRV or a bypass in the system to ensure a minimum flow of water through the boiler. In some boilers the bypass is within the boiler unit.
If you have a hot water cylinder this should have a thermostat too so that the boiler can know when the hot water is hot enough. If you don't then the boiler can only tell when the cylinder is hot by sending some hot water round and seeing how much cooler it is when it comes back. This means it has to turn on just to check. Also, if the pipes between the boiler and the hot water tank are not well lagged the water will cool regardless of the temperature of the cylinder so the boiler will always think the tank is not hot enough.
How do you know if you have a thermostat? The thermostat is usually mounted on the side of the tank and it has a dial to set the temperature. (Sometimes the thermostat is just a sensor and the setting is controlled by the heating programmer).
Thermostats are not expensive but fitting them can be complicated because they have to connect to the boiler. It may not be worth fitting a cylinder thermostat as a separate job but if you are changing your boiler, your tank or adding other controls then it would be a good idea to fit a thermostat at the same time.
If you have an immersion heater this will have its own thermostat inside the cylinder. Changing the setting usually involves taking the front off and tweaking with a screwdriver. This should only be done by a qualified electrician.
Heating zones allow you to set different heating patterns in different parts of the house. Each zone has its own wall thermostat and timer. For example with 2 zones, for bedrooms and living room, you can heat the bedrooms first thing and again before bedtime, while the living rooms warm up later in the morning and earlier in the evening.
Zoned heating can be installed by organising the plumbing with a separate radiator circuit for each zone or electronically using radiator valve actuators which are turned on and off from a controller. To save wiring this can be by wireless control and the actuators can be battery powered though the batteries only last a couple of years.
As for how many you should have, it depends on how big your house is, and what are your usage patterns. For example, you could have one zone for areas you use during the day (workroom, office?), separate from areas you use in the evening.
You can also have programmable controls on each radiator, which gives you a zone per room, except that the boiler will still turn on and off dependent on the wall thermostat.
If you don't have a wall thermostat you must be relying on the boiler thermostat; this measures the return temperature of the water as it comes back from the radiators. If you have fitted thermostatic radiator valves and adjusted them to your needs, then when the rooms are warm enough the circulating water bypasses the radiators and returns to the boiler almost as hot as it started, though it will also be losing heat from the pipes in the circuit between the radiators and this loss can be substantial - in most cases these pipes aren't lagged. If the heat loss is small the boiler will notice this and shut off. However, even then it needs to keep checking, so it periodically sends water round the pipes to see if heating is needed. If you have a room thermostat, this will turn the boiler off completely and will make at least some savings.
If you donít have thermostatic radiator valves and your rooms are warmer than you need then a room thermostat will help a lot.
Maybe - it depends on whether or not you already have a boiler interlock which allows the timer to turn the boiler off when it isnít needed. If you havenít got one you will need to have one fitted.
Thermostatic Radiator Valves (TRVs)] allow you to keep some parts of your house warmer than others. You can adjust them through the day according to need, or you can leave them on one setting most of the time. For example if you have a spare room you donít use you can turn the thermostat right down except when you have a guest coming to stay. You might keep your bedrooms cooler than your living room, or turn them off during the day and only turn them on shortly before bedtime. You will need to keep doors closed as well to stop heat leaking in from other parts of the house.
How much you save with TRVs depends on how much of your house you can reduce the heating in. A TRV can cost as little as £10 but you do need one per radiator and unless you plan to fit them yourself you will need to pay the plumber too. They will need to drain the system to do this.
Many programmable thermostats can do this. You can set different temperatures for different time windows during the day. For example you could have different settings for getting up in the morning, early evening and late evening.
You may be able to get a grant towards heating controls up to the current recommended standard (which is a programmable timer and thermostat and TRVs). The Green Deal includes help with financing heating controls, either by a loan or through an ECO grant, though this is means tested.
You want air to be able to circulate in front of your radiators and into the room
If you have a radiator under a window the ideal is for the curtain to sit just above the window sill and the window sill to extend over the radiator. This deflects warm air from the radiator into the room and not up the window behind the curtain.
If you need to extend your window sill, an easy way is to fix a piece of 9mm plywood on top of the existing sill, to the extra width you require. Then add a strip of timber underneath the overhanging section to make up the full thickness and create a robust front edge. There is skill involved in hiding the joints but at least the top face has no joints, and that is the bit on full show.
If there is one room that you spend most time in and keep warm, then that is the best room for the thermostat. Alternatively it should be in a room which is central in the house. If you have a wireless thermostat you can move it around until you find the best place, or keep it with you all the time.
In any case it is best on an internal wall, and away from direct heat sources including radiators and also electrical equipment such as TVs or computer monitors. It is usual to put thermostats at about head level. If you put them lower then you should set the temperature a little lower than you would have done because the air is usually cooler at lower levels (especially in draughty houses).
You should not have a TRV on any radiators in the room with the wall thermostat. If you do then it is possible for the TRV to shut down the radiator before the thermostat shuts off the boiler, so the room never gets hot enough to trip the wall thermostat and you will find the boiler runs all the time whether you need heat or not.
Most people set their wall thermostat somewhere between 17C and 21C. Some people don't like to be too warm but some feel the cold very easily, especially in hands and feet. If you have vulnerable people in your house - such as someone elderly who is not very mobile and might fall and be unable to get up - then you should set the thermostat to at least 18C.
Reducing your thermostat setting is one of the simplest ways to save energy. Dropping it one degree can save up to 5% on your heating costs. However, it can take a little time to get used to a lower temperature. Make sure you are warmly dressed and try reducing the thermostat setting a little bit - at most one degree. If that feels cold, persevere for a week or two. If you still feel cold turn it up again. If you feel quite comfortable at the lower setting, try turning it down a little more.
Some people are prone to cold hands and feet even when the rest of their body is warm. (In extreme cases this is called Raynaud's Syndrome.) Fingerless gloves and warm socks can help.
Setting your radiator thermostats can be tricky because any change takes a whole to have an effect and you don't get a click when the valve opens or closes. There are a few easy cases:
For other rooms you will need to experiment. Make sure the heating is on first. Then go into each room and see if it is too warm or too cool: tweak the radiator valves up or down accordingly. If you have turned the heating up, check in a few minutes to see if the pipes are warm showing that there is hot water coming in. If not, tweak some more. If you have turned the heating down then the pipes will cool but this will take some time. Check the room temperature again after half an hour (making sure the heating is still on) and tweak some more as necessary.
Even if you turn the radiators off and close the door some heat will leak through from the rest of the house and you will find this is enough to keep the pipes in the room from freezing. However it may feel a little damp after a while, in which case you should ventilate the room sometimes.
Cats and dogs are usually good at finding a warm place; with adequate bedding they should be OK as long as the house is always above freezing. More exotic pets like birds may need a warmer environment, so the room they're caged in should be kept at the right temperature. A vet should be able to advise you on the best temperature for any animal.
The boiler thermostat sets the temperature of the water that circulates through the radiators. This must be warmer than the room temperature you want to achieve and the hotter the radiators the quicker the rooms will heat up. However, if the radiators are very hot people can burn themselves by touching them and also condensing boilers are much more efficient at lower temperatures. Condensing boilers are normally balanced to give you a 20C temperature drop from 70C down to 50C. That means the boiler thermostat is set to 70C and the water returning from the radiators is 50C which is low enough to give good condensation.
If you have a non-condensing boiler, it is normally balanced to run at 80C with a drop of 10C through the radiators, so the return temperature is 70C. This is hot enough to avoid condensation, which would cause lots of problems.
Your boiler probably has a separate control for the hot water heating circuit and this needs to run at a higher temperature than the hot water cylinder thermostat (below), otherwise it will never get to that temperature..
If you have a hot water tank it should maintain water at a minimum of 60C to avoid growth of bacteria such as legionairres disease. You might need it hotter than this if you have a lot of baths and showers. However, you don't want it hotter than necessary because it will lose more heat the hotter it is. Also if it is very hot then people can scald themselves washing their hands.
To get the most energy from your solar panel you need to time the water heating so that it tops up the heat in the water tank only when necessary and only as much as necessary. You should time this to heat up the water before you use it, or at least after the sun has done as much as it can. For example, if you mainly use hot water in the morning 7-9am then you could top up the tank in the morning around 6am so there is enough when you need it. During the day the sun will give you free heat and if this is not enough the boiler will supply the difference the next morning.
You can allow your solar panel to heat your water hotter (thus storing more energy) if you have a thermostatic mixer valve to prevent scalding - the mixer valve will mix in enough cold to make the water from the taps safe.
Check the boiler is on. If it is not, check the programmer timings and the thermostat Ė adjust this upwards if necessary.
Otherwise, if the radiator is partially warm, check for air in the system. If the radiator has a TRV try turning it up. If that doesnít help it may be stuck: see My radiator has a TRV but it is always on (or always off)
Is it heating the radiators or only the hot water? If it is running heat through the radiators, check the thermostat and consider turning it down.
Radiator valves can sometimes stick. Try turning it right down, then up, then back to where it was. If it still stuck you can try removing the head of the valve and fiddling with the pin to free it up - try alternately pressing and releasing it as described here. If it is totally stuck then you may need a new valve which means draining the system. If you have other valves of a similar type and age then they will probably fail soon too and you should replace them all at once, because draining the system is expensive you don't want to do it more often than you have to.
Adjusting the thermostat wonít help Ė this is either off or on. You can adjust the boiler to increase the temperature of the water circulating round the radiators. However, if this is very hot then children or vulnerable adults could scald themselves on the radiators. Or you can fit a control with a load compensator
For most people it is much better to let the house go cold when you donít need the warmth. When the house is warm it loses more heat than when it is cold so if it is warmer than it needs to be it is losing more heat too. However, if your heating system takes a long time to heat the house then you might like to use a delayed start system which automatically adjusts the start up time depending on the temperature.
The only exception to this rule is if your heating system is inefficient when working at full blast - which is the case if you use a heat pump. Running this quickly you will need to turn up the working temperature which will make the pump work inefficiently so with a heat pump you are better to keep the house warm and the pump running steadily most of the time.
Finally, if your house is taking a long time to heat up it could be because you have high heat loss through draughts and poor insulation. Stopping up draughts and improving your insulation will reduce this. However, your house may take a long time to heat simply because it stores heat in the walls and floors - this can be a good thing as it will also stay cooler for longer in summer.
If the radiator is cold at the top it probably has air in it. You need a radiator bleeding key: with this you open a valve at the top to let the air out. When fluid starts coming out you close the valve. Itís a good idea to have a tissue or a cloth to mop up.
If the radiator is cold in patches then it may be blocked up with sludge or scale. It needs to be flushed through with descaler to clean it out. You will need a plumber for this unless you are a confident DIYer.
NB. Every time the radiator system is refilled a chemical inhibitor should be added to prevent scale.
Your boiler should run quietly. If it is noisy there could be something wrong with the pumping system. One possibility is if you have valves on all your radiators turned off and there is nowhere for the water to flow. You should either have an automatic bypass, which cuts in when nothing needs heat, or you need to keep one radiator always open so that there is somewhere for the water to flow. Many modern boilers have an internal interlock but older systems do not. In that case you should not put TRVs on all your radiators - you should leave one fixed open. (Also you should not put a TRV on the radiator in the same room as the room thermostat.)
Boilers should last at least 10-15 years - longer if maintained well. You can get guarantees for 5, 7 or even 10 years from reputable manufacturers.
Boiler lifetime is restricted largely by the availability of parts: manufacturers may stop supplying parts 10 years after the boiler model is taken off the market. This means it is a good idea when you buy to get a new model which is early in its sales cycle so that you will continue to be able to get new parts for longer. When parts are no longer available you should consider replacing your boiler before it actually stops working to avoid the difficulty of getting a new one in an emergency.
Here is some good advice from Which. Basically, the tips are:
Optimum start or delayed start is a feature for the programmer. Normally you set the program times for when you want the heating to come on and turn off. With this feature you set the program times for when you want to be warm and the system decides when it needs to turn on. When the house is cold it turns on early but in mild weather it will switch the boiler on later because it doesnít take very long to warm the house up.
A load compensator adjusts the radiator circulating temperature to be hotter when the house is cold. The weather compensator does the same depending on the weather (measured using an outside thermometer). This means you can run the radiators cooler when less heating is needed. This is a good thing because condensing boilers are more efficient at lower temperatures: ideally the water returning to the boiler should be no warmer than 55C.
Some programmable thermostats have a set back temperature which is like a default or standby temperature - when the heating isnít Ďoní, for example overnight, it will still maintain the house at this temperature.
This is the system which allows your thermostat and programmer to tell the boiler when to turn on and off.
Balancing the system is a matter of optimising the radiator valves and the boiler pump rate to get an optimum temperature drop through the whole circuit and in each radiator. If you don't balance the system then the upstairs radiators tend to get all the heat and the last radiators in the circuit take a long time to warm up. Also, the radiator return temperature needs to be appropriate for your boiler type - low enough to get good condensation in a condensing boiler, or high enough to avoid condensation in an older boiler.
This is a minimum temperature which always applies, regardless of the other settings. This should be just enough to keep your pipes from freezing - around 5-7 C
Some programmers allow you to tell them when you are going on holiday and, more importantly, how long you will be away. When in holiday mode your programmer will keep track of the days and reset to normal before you return so you can come back to a warm house.
Smart heating controls can mean a lot of different things. For example, load compensation is a smart control, especially if it 'learns' how long it takes your house to heat rather than asking you to select a temperature curve. Smart controls can also:
There is a european standard for smart controls (EN 15232) which describes the services which can be provided and estimates the savings achievable in different situations. For a residential property with full automation the savings (over the reference case which is for a home with a condensing boiler, programmable thermostat with weather compensation and TRVs) are around 20%. There is a paper about this standard here.
Homaetrix is a local company that deals with smart controls.
A presence sensor connected to your radiator valves can turn them down by 1 or 2 degrees when you arenít in the room - enough to save some energy but not enough that it canít warm up quickly when needed. If your house has a high thermal capacity it may take too long to warm up for this to be useful.
Inhibitor fluid is a chemical additive for the water that goes around your radiators to stop corrosion and scale. You should add inhibitor every time you have to drain and refill the system. Also it is a good idea to add inhibitor every 5 years or so because it gets 'used up'.
The Institute of Domestic Heating and Environmental Engineers - has a register of members you can look up by postcode.
In Cambridge, we recommend Green Heat
The Chartered Institute of Plumbing and Heating Engineering maintains a register of competent professionals. You can find your nearest professionals by postcode.
If you have gas central heating then you must use a Gas Safe registered engineer.